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Our work focuses on the pre pregnancy risk factors that pre dispose a complicated pregnancy (such as pre term babies, pre eclampsia or miscarriage)


Miscarriage is the commonest complication of pregnancy. Around one in four pregnancies will end in miscarriage. Most miscarriages happen in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, only 1-2% of miscarriages happen between 12 and 24 weeks. A small minority of couples (less than 2% of the population) will suffer from recurrent miscarriage. This is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses. Despite the fact that miscarriage is very common we still know very little about why it happens and how it might be prevented. One of the possible causes for miscarriage may be that there is an abnormal response to the developing embryo by a woman’s immune system.

What we do

Our research group aims to understand the importance of different immune cells (such as natural killer cells and regulatory T cells) in the maintenance of normal pregnancy and how they may be associated with miscarriage. We are undertaking a study investigating immune cells in the endometrium (womb lining) of patients with a history of recurrent miscarriage. We take part in Research Trials investigating treatments for miscarriage and also have an interest in understanding the impact of miscarriage on women and their families.

Current studies

  • Natural Killer cells (NK and NKT) and T cells in failed implantation and recurrent miscarriage
  • RESPONSE study 
  • A cross cultural exploration of pregnancy loss. Dr Susie Kilshaw (University College London) is leading this study in Oxford.
  • The PIP Study (Peri-implantation Immune Profiling) click here to read more


If you are interested in taking part in a study please contact




Selected publications

Related research themes