Genetic alterations in gastric cancers from British patients.
Sud R., Wells D., Talbot IC., Delhanty JD.
Twenty-six gastric carcinoma and matching normal tissue DNAs, which had previously been analyzed for alterations of the APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) and MCC (mutated in colorectal cancer) genes were further investigated for the following genetic alterations: mutation and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the p53 gene, replication error (RER) and LOH at 12 microsatellite repeat loci, and mutation of the hMSH2 gene. In addition, 9 of the 26 gastric carcinomas were analyzed for genetic alterations using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Somatic mutations of the p53 gene were found to be frequent being detected in 31% of gastric carcinomas while LOH at the p53 locus was observed in 37.5% of informative cases. Loss of wild type p53 allele was detected in the majority (7 of 8) tumors found to be harboring a mutation. In the hMSH2 gene, an intronic 4 base pair insertion at 31 base pairs upstream of the beginning of exon 13 was detected in both tumor and normal tissue from one gastric carcinoma case. RER was detected in 11.5% of gastric carcinomas, at one or more microsatellite repeat loci. Of the 12 microsatellite repeat loci analyzed LOH was most frequently observed at D22S351 (30% informative cases) suggesting that a tumor suppressor gene on 22q may be important in gastric carcinogenesis. In support of this, CGH analysis carried out on 9 of the gastric carcinomas identified loss of chromosome 22 in 5 of these tumors.