Preimplantation genetic diagnosis.
Munné S., Wells D.
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is essentially an alternative to prenatal diagnosis, in which genetic testing is performed on embryos before a clinical pregnancy is established. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis has been applied to patients carrying chromosomal rearrangements, such as translocations, in which it has been proven to decrease the number of spontaneous abortions and prevent the birth of children affected with chromosome imbalance. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis techniques have also been applied to increase implantation rates, reduce the incidence of spontaneous abortion and prevent trisomic offspring in women of advanced maternal age undergoing fertility treatment. A third group of patients receiving preimplantation genetic diagnosis are those at risk of transmitting a single gene disorder to their children. The number of monogenic disorders that have been diagnosed in preimplantation embryos has increased each year. Recent protocols have tended to be more complex and more reliable than previous methods, making greater use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction. As well as an expansion in the variety of disorders for which preimplantation genetic diagnosis is offered, new indications have been reported including the use of human leukocyte antigen histocompatibility typing and the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis to late onset diseases.