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Vitrification reduces the developmental competence of porcine immature oocytes. We investigated the effects of modifying various factors on the viability and development of oocytes after vitrification. These factors included: 1) exposure to the vitrification solution, 2) macromolecule addition (bovine serum albumin (BSA) or polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)), 3) treatment with cytochalasin B, 4) equilibration temperature, and 5) vitrification method (microdrop or Cryotop). Oocytes were equilibrated and vitrified using medium containing ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. After warming, oocytes were subjected to in vitro maturation, stimulated parthenogenetically, and cultured in vitro. Survival rate, nuclear maturation, cleavage, development to the blastocyst stage and their quality were compared between the vitrified groups and the non-vitrified control group. It was found that 1) exposure to the vitrification solution for longer than 30 s was detrimental to embryo development; 2) replacement of BSA with PVP improved embryo development; 3) cytochalasin B treatment reduced the survival rates, but did not affect the blastocyst development rates, 4) equilibration at room temperature (25 °C) was the most beneficial, and 5) the microdrop method improved survival rates. With these adjustments, we were able to establish a simplified and defined cryopreservation system for porcine immature oocytes with improved efficacy.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





87 - 94


Cryoprotectant, Gene banking, Pig, Vitrification, Animals, Blastocyst, Cryopreservation, Cryoprotective Agents, Embryonic Development, Female, Oocytes, Swine, Temperature, Vitrification