Maternal dietary intake in twin pregnancies: does it diminish towards term?
Morley R., Umstad MP., Bond J., Moore VM., Owens JA., Dwyer T., Carlin JB.
We tested the hypothesis that energy intake among women with twin pregnancies decreases in late gestation, as the uterus enlarges and they become increasingly uncomfortable. We asked women to recall dietary intake for the previous 24 hours, every 2 weeks from around 29 weeks of gestation, using a photographic atlas and other strategies to estimate portion size. Eighty women provided data at around 29, 31, 33 and 35 weeks of gestation. We calculated total energy intake, and energy intake from carbohydrate, fat and protein. Data were log transformed to reduce skewness. Using mixed effects linear regression models, we found minimal evidence that total energy intake changed over this time period, either before or after adjustment for potential confounding factors (95% confidence interval for relative change per week: -1.4%, 0.6%). There was weak evidence of a small decline in carbohydrate intake over time, both before and after controlling for energy intake. We cannot exclude change in energy intake or diet composition before 29 weeks or after 35 weeks of twin gestation.