Environmental and genetic determinants of two vitamin D metabolites in healthy Australian children.
Bima A., Pezic A., Sun C., Cameron FJ., Rodda C., van der Mei I., Chiaroni-Clarke R., Dwyer T., Kemp A., Qu J., Carlin J., Ellis JA., Ponsonby A-L.
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with adverse health outcomes. We examined genetic and environmental determinants of serum 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 in childhood. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 322 healthy Australian children (predominantly Caucasians) who provided a venous blood sample. A parental interview was conducted and skin phototype and anthropometry measures were assessed. Concentrations of 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 were measured by selective solid-phase extraction-capillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. These concentrations were deseasonalised where relevant to remove the effect of month of sampling. RESULTS: Deseasonalised log 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations were only moderately correlated (r=0.42, p<0.001). The following predicted both 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3: UVR 6 weeks before the interview, natural skin and eye colour, height and vitamin D allelic metabolism score. The following predicted 25(OH)D3 only: lifetime sunburns and vitamin D allelic synthesis score. Overall, 43.5% and 25.6% of variation in 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 could be explained. After accounting for 25(OH)D3 concentrations, higher UVR 6 weeks before the interview and vitamin D allelic metabolism score further predicted 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental factors and genetic factors contributed to both vitamin D metabolite concentrations. The intriguing finding that the higher ambient UVR contributed to higher 1,25(OH)2D3 after accounting for 25(OH)D3 concentrations requires further evaluation.