Chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants in coronary artery disease: a case-control study.
Simons LA., Dwyer T., Simons J., Bernstein L., Mock P., Poonia NS., Balasubramaniam S., Baron D., Branson J., Morgan J.
Epidemiologic studies of coronary artery disease have largely overlooked the role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins circulating in the post-prandial state. We have conducted a case-control study in males which examined fasting plasma lipoproteins and lipoproteins circulating 4 h after ingestion of a test meal containing fat and cholesterol. The cases were 82 subjects with coronary artery disease confirmed by angiography, while there were two control groups: one group of 38 'hospital controls' free of significant coronary disease by angiography, and a second group of 61 'workforce controls' free of coronary disease on historical grounds. Mean plasma and LDL cholesterol levels were significantly higher and HDL cholesterol levels were significantly lower in cases than in controls. The apo-B48/apo-B100 ratio in lipoproteins Sf greater than 60 obtained 4 h post-prandially, a relative measure of chylomicron and remnant presence, was significantly higher in cases than in controls. After pooling of all data, the prevalence of coronary artery disease was found to increase progressively with the concentration of plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio and the apo-B48/apo-B100 ratio in Sf greater than 60, the relative risk being highest for total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio. After controlling for the confounding effects of age and other lipid factors via multiple logistic regression, apo-B48/apo-B100 ratio was still a significant predictor of coronary artery disease presence (z = 1.97, P less than 0.05) in a 'dose-response' fashion. The risk of coronary artery disease in the top quartile of apo-B48/apo-B100 distribution was 2.2-fold greater than that for the bottom quartile, after adjustment for the effects of other risk factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)