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We have produced compelling evidence that women are subject to a higher relative increase in their risk of coronary heart disease and stroke following a diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes. Thus, in terms of vascular risk, diabetes confers a female disadvantage. This excess risk could be due to three main factors. First, it is conceivable that this is merely a mathematical artifact caused by the relatively low background rate for cardiovascular diseases among women, compared with men. Second, it could be due to women receiving poorer care following their diagnosis of diabetes than men; for instance, due to physician bias. Third, certain underlying biological differences in women and men, most likely related to the distribution of body fat, could explain this female disadvantage.

Original publication




Journal article


Womens Health (Lond)

Publication Date





833 - 839


coronary heart disease, diabetes, stroke, women, Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Female, Humans, Male, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, Sex Factors, Stroke