Adiposity gain during childhood, ACE I/D polymorphisms and metabolic outcomes.
Ponsonby A-L., Blizzard L., Pezic A., Cochrane JA., Ellis JA., Morley R., Dickinson JL., Sale MM., Richards SM., Dwyer T.
We aimed to (i) determine the relative importance of childhood gain in upper body adiposity for insulin resistance (IR) and triglyceridemia (TG); (ii) examine whether the associations between adiposity and metabolic indices were more evident in those with the ACE DD genotype. We examined a birth cohort study of 292 children with measures in the neonatal period (day 4) including subscapular and triceps skinfolds; repeat skinfold measures at age 8, cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness, IR by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) equation (HOMA-IR) and serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations and measures of ACE I/D gene variants. A multiple linear regression analysis incorporating a life course approach was undertaken. Childhood gain in upper body adiposity was positively associated with HOMA-IR and TG independently of neonatal skinfolds (P < or = 0.02). The magnitude of these associations was higher among those of the ACE DD genotype. For example, subscapular skinfold gain was not strongly associated with HOMA-IR or TG among those with II or ID genotype (b = 0.03, P = 0.05; b = 0.02, P = 0.18 respectively) but was positively associated among those with the DD genotype (b = 0.11, P = 0.001; b = 0.08, P = 0.003); difference in effect P = 0.05; P = 0.01 respectively. Upper body fat accumulation during childhood was positively associated with HOMA-IR and TG independently of neonatal skinfolds. Further, the stronger associations for those with the ACE DD genotype is consistent with randomised controlled trial findings that ACE inhibition is associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Further work is required to confirm and extend these findings.