Poor stereoacuity among children with poor literacy: prevalence and associated factors.
Ponsonby A-L., Smith K., Williamson E., Bridge D., Carmichael A., Dwyer T., Jacobs A., Keeffe J.
PURPOSE: Population-based studies on abnormal binocular vision and low literacy are rare. The aim is to determine the prevalence of poor stereoacuity among children with low literacy; to identify the characteristics associated with poor stereoacuity among children with low literacy; and to determine the agreement between poor stereoacuity as measured by graded stereocircles with a computerized assessment. METHODS: A total of 490 children attending primary school in the greater Hobart region, Tasmania, aged 7 to 14 years, with literacy results below the 10th percentile for Tasmanian students at grade 3 level of the NAPLAN (National Assessment Program in Literacy and Numeracy) testing completed a vision screen. Poor stereoacuity was defined as more than 100 seconds of arc as measured by Titmus stereocircles. RESULTS: The prevalence of poor stereoacuity was 16.8% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 13.6 to 20.4%). Children with poor stereoacuity had a higher frequency of symptom report using the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey. Factors associated with poor stereopsis were prematurity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.19; 95% CI, 1.09 to 4.42) and bottom shuffling (AOR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.17 to 4.88). Features associated with poor stereopsis included squint (AOR, 6.05; 95% CI, 3.02 to 12.12), migraine (AOR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.05 to 4.83), and attention deficit disorder (AOR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.01 to 3.65). CONCLUSIONS: In this low-literacy sample, one-sixth had low stereoacuity. The associations reported require further investigation.