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OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether those genes involved in the vitamin D pathway modulate the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and IFN-β, the relationship between IFN-β and sun in predicting 25(OH)D, and the interaction between IFN-β and 25(OH)D in modulating relapse risk in patients with MS. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 169 participants with MS and genotype data followed 2002-2005. Gene-IFN-β and gene-IFN-β-sun interactions predicting 25(OH)D evaluated by multilevel mixed-effects linear regression. Gene-IFN-β interactions with 25(OH)D in modulating in relapse risk assessed using survival analysis. RESULTS: The cohort was 71.6% female and of mean age 47.8. Two-independent intronic genotyped SNPs (rs10767935 and rs5030244) in WT1 significantly modified the IFN-β-25(OH)D association after adjustment (P(interaction) = 0.001, 0.0002; P(adj) = 0.003, 0.006, respectively). There was a marked difference in the interaction between self-reported sun exposure and IFN-β in predicting 25(OH)D by level of rs10767935, although this did not reach statistical significance. No SNPs modified the interaction between IFN-β and 25(OH)D in predicting relapse. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated that two-independent SNPs (rs10767935 and rs5030244) in WT1 modified the IFN-β-25(OH)D association in patients with MS. Some evidence was shown for a difference in the sun-IFN-β-25(OH)D association by level of rs10767935. These findings indicate that WT1 variants may play a role in altering the effects of IFN-β on vitamin D in MS.

Original publication




Journal article


Acta Neurol Scand

Publication Date





231 - 239


genetic, interferon-β, multiple sclerosis, vitamin D, Adult, Aged, Cohort Studies, Female, Genes, Wilms Tumor, Genotype, Humans, Immunologic Factors, Interferon-beta, Male, Middle Aged, Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Prospective Studies, Recurrence, Sunlight, Vitamin D, Young Adult