Giant placental chorioangioma: natural history and pregnancy outcome.
Zanardini C., Papageorghiou A., Bhide A., Thilaganathan B.
OBJECTIVES: Giant placental chorioangiomas are associated with a high prevalence of pregnancy complications and a poor perinatal outcome. The aim of the study was to evaluate the natural history, intrauterine treatment and outcome of pregnancies complicated by giant placental chorioangioma. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 19 cases of giant placental chorioangioma, in which the natural history, intrauterine treatment and outcome of pregnancy were evaluated. RESULTS: Eighteen of the 19 cases were associated with a wide variety of fetal complications, including polyhydramnios, growth restriction, hyperdynamic circulation, cardiomegaly, anemia and non-immune hydrops. Two-thirds of the cases developed complications that required either elective delivery for fetal growth restriction (n = 6) or intervention for cardiovascular effects (n = 7). Fetal therapy, when required, was tailored to the particular complication and resulted in a successful pregnancy in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of large placental chorioangioma is associated with the development of fetal growth restriction and hyperdynamic state in a significant number of cases. This series elucidates some of the putative underlying mechanisms for these complications, and reports on a safe and effective treatment modality, percutaneous ultrasound-guided interstitial laser therapy.