Advances in gynaecological oncology surgery.
Pathiraja P., Tozzi R.
Latest surgical advances in the field of gynaecological oncology, a sub-specialty of gynaecology, are reviewed in this chapter. The surgery is mainly practised in cancer centres by board-certified gynaecologists, and requires a 2-3 year period of additional training in gynaecological oncology. Surgical treatment of gynaecological malignancies has progressed in two directions: reduction of the invasiveness of the surgery and expansion of the number and type of procedures performed. Gynaecological oncology focuses on the pelvis to the upper abdomen and the thorax to target (all visible disease) the last cancer cell in women with advanced ovarian cancer. Minimal-access surgery has evolved to include any operation by laparoscopy. It uses fewer ports (single-port surgery), and robotic assistance improves the comfort of the surgeon. The concept of fertility-sparing surgery for women with cervical cancer is now supported by mature data. The indication and the aggressiveness of the exenterative surgery are also broader than originally recommended. The ideal timing of surgery is under investigation in several areas, mainly in women with ovarian and cervical cancer. The aim is to reduce morbidity and mortality of surgical procedures while maintaining the survival outcome.