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© 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. During radiotherapy, the reaction of radiation energy with the aqueous environment of the cell results in the generation of redox-active products. The addition of radiosensitizers can potentially amplify the effects of radiotherapy. Here, we investigated the X-ray-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from rare earth doped titania nanoparticles. The rare earth element(s) and the levels of doping and co-doping were assessed for their ability to generate ROS. Subsequently, cellular responses to the nanoparticles were determined. As such, an increase in cellular ROS and lipid peroxidation was seen in the presence of nanoparticles. Thus, in this study, we have shown that after irradiation, the nanoparticles generate ROS and cause an upregulation in cellular ROS due to a cascade effect.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





307 - 315