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B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are elevated in persons at risk for congestive heart failure (CHF). However, limited data are available directly comparing BNP-related peptides and CRP in persons at risk of CHF. To evaluate amino terminal-pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) and CRP, separately and together, for assessment of risk of CHF, we performed a nested case-control study of the 6105 participants of the Perindopril pROtection aGainst REcurrent Stroke Study (PROGRESS), a placebo-controlled study of a perindopril-based blood pressure-lowering regimen among individuals with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Each of 258 subjects who developed CHF resulting in death, hospitalization, or withdrawal of randomized therapy during a mean follow-up of 3.9 years was matched to 1 to 3 control subjects. NT-proBNP and CRP predicted CHF; the odds ratio for subjects in the highest compared with the lowest quarter was 4.5 (95% confidence interval, 2.7 to 7.5) for NT-proBNP and 2.9 (confidence interval, 1.9 to 4.7) for CRP, and each remained a predictor of CHF after adjustment for all other predictors. Screening for both markers provided better prognostic information than screening for either alone. Elevation of NT-proBNP above 50 pmol/L and CRP above 0.84 mg/L predicted CHF with sensitivity of 64% and specificity of 66%. NT-proBNP and CRP predicted CHF in subjects receiving perindopril-based therapy. We conclude that NT-proBNP and CRP are independent predictors of CHF risk after stroke or TIA. Moreover, NT-proBNP and CRP may be markers of mechanisms of CHF pathogenesis distinct from those responsive to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-based therapy.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





69 - 74


Aged, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Antihypertensive Agents, Biomarkers, C-Reactive Protein, Case-Control Studies, Cerebrovascular Disorders, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Heart Failure, Humans, Hypertension, Incidence, Ischemic Attack, Transient, Male, Middle Aged, Natriuretic Peptide, Brain, Nerve Tissue Proteins, Peptide Fragments, Perindopril, Predictive Value of Tests, Prognosis, Prospective Studies, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Risk Factors, Sensitivity and Specificity, Stroke