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INTRODUCTION In vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment has revolutionized the treatment of infertility and is estimated to have led to more than 6 million births worldwide. However, despite the obvious benets of IVF, it must be acknowledged that the process remains inecient. Even aer almost four decades of optimization, it is still the case that the majority of embryo transfers fail to produce a pregnancy. e problem worsens with advancing female age, with IVF success rates dropping with ever growing speed aer the age of 35 years. e high failure rates are associated with signi- cant nancial and psychological costs to patients (1-3).



Book title

Textbook of Assisted Reproductive Techniques, Fifth Edition: Two Volume Set

Publication Date



350 - 358