Miscarriage syndrome: Linking early pregnancy loss to obstetric and age-related disorders.
Bortoletto P., Lucas ES., Melo P., Gallos ID., Devall AJ., Bourne T., Quenby S., Bennett PR., Coomarasamy A., Brosens JJ.
Upon embryo implantation, the uterine mucosa - the endometrium - transforms into a robust decidual matrix that accommodates the fetal placenta throughout pregnancy. This transition is driven by the differentiation of endometrial fibroblasts into specialised decidual cells. A synchronised influx of circulating natural killer (NK) cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (BM-MSC) is pivotal for decidual homeostasis and expansion in early pregnancy. We hypothesise that pathological signals interfering with the recruitment or activity of extrauterine cells at the maternal-fetal interface link miscarriage to subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes, including further pregnancy losses and preterm labour. NK cells and BM-MSC are key homeostatic regulators in multiple tissues, pointing towards a shared aetiology between recurrent miscarriage and age-related disorders, including cardiometabolic disease. We propose the term 'miscarriage syndrome' to capture the health risks associated with miscarriage and discuss how this paradigm can inform clinical practice and accelerate the development of preventative strategies.