Genetic causes of sporadic and recurrent miscarriage.
Melo P., Dhillon-Smith R., Islam MA., Devall A., Coomarasamy A.
Approximately 80% of miscarriages happen within the first 12 weeks of gestation. More than half of early losses result from genetic defects, usually presenting as abnormal chromosome numbers or gene rearrangements in the embryo. However, the impact of genetics on pregnancy loss goes well beyond embryonic aneuploidy. For example, the use of big data has recently led to the discovery of specific gene mutations that may be implicated in sporadic and recurrent miscarriages. Further, emerging data suggest that genetic factors play a role in conditions for which there is a causative association with recurrent pregnancy loss. Here, we summarize the evidence on the genetics of miscarriage and provide an overview of the diagnosis and prevention of genetic causes associated with sporadic and recurrent pregnancy loss.