Diagnosis, Treatment and Prognosis of Mesonephric Adenocarcinoma of the Vagina: A Literature Review and a Case Report.
Ferrari F., Omodei AS., Ferrari FA., Soleymani Majd H., Ardighieri L., Vitale SG., Laganà AS., Angioni S., Ciravolo G., Odicino F.
BACKGROUND: Mesonephric adenocarcinoma (MA) of the vagina is a rare tumor that arises from mesonephric remnants (Wolffian) in the female genital tract. It is a neoplasm with no significant evidence about its diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and prognosis. METHODS: Systematic research of the literature was conducted in Scopus, PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect and the Cochrane Library, including observational prospective and retrospective studies, case series and case reports. We collected data regarding studies related to diagnosis and treatment options evaluating the following aspects: study design, population, treatment type, rate of surgical complications and fertility outcome. We further included a case report of laparoscopic management of MA with pictorial assays. RESULTS: Thirteen cases of MA of the vagina are available in the literature, including our case report. The median age at diagnosis was 52 years old; the majority of patients reported vaginal bleeding as a symptom (38%); and ultrasound, followed by a magnetic resonance and CT scan were the diagnostic tools most used. In 54% of the cases, a surgical biopsy was performed, and 92% of the patients underwent upfront surgery with an open access or vaginal resection except one case fully managed by minimally invasive surgery. Most of the patients (68%) received adjuvant treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy or a combination of them. The mean follow-up period was 6 years. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the rarity of this cancer and bizarre location, a minimally invasive approach seems feasible after multidisciplinary evaluation. According to the rarity of this tumor, any future case and follow-up data must be reported in the literature in order to enlarge the knowledge about it.