Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

OBJECTIVE: We examined associations between fat free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) accretion during the first 1000 days of life and neurodevelopment in term-born, low-risk infants from Karachi, Pakistan. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study nested within the larger Multi-Center Body Composition Reference Study. FFM, FM, and fat% were estimated using measured deuterium dilution method. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed at 24 months on the INTER-NDA (INTERGROWTH-21st Project Neurodevelopment Assessment) (n = 132). RESULTS: Children with gross motor delays had significantly lower FFM at 18 months (8.01 ± 0.97 kg vs. 7.55 ± 0.20 kg). Children with positive and negative behavior problems had significantly higher fat% at 24 months (20.62 ± 4.30% vs. 18.23 ± 5.46%) and 20.89 ± 4.24% vs. 18.54 ± 5.38%). No associations remained significant after adjusting for covariates. Trajectory modeling showed that between 12 and 18 months, negative behavior scores changed by 13.8 points for every standard deviation change in fat accretion. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the importance of balancing neurodevelopment and metabolic risk when designing nutritional interventions for young children.

Original publication




Journal article


Eur J Clin Nutr

Publication Date