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BACKGROUND: The four different local therapy strategies used for head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma (HNRMS) include proton therapy (PT), photon therapy (RT), surgery with radiotherapy (Paris-method), and surgery with brachytherapy (AMORE). Local control and survival is comparable; however, the impact of these different treatments on facial deformation is still poorly understood. This study aims to quantify facial deformation and investigates the differences in facial deformation between treatment modalities. METHODS: Across four European and North American institutions, HNRMS survivors treated between 1990 and 2017, more than 2 years post treatment, had a 3D photograph taken. Using dense surface modeling, we computed facial signatures for each survivor to show facial deformation relative to 35 age-sex-ethnicity-matched controls. Additionally, we computed individual facial asymmetry. FINDINGS: A total of 173 HNRMS survivors were included, survivors showed significantly reduced facial growth (p 

Original publication




Journal article


Pediatr Blood Cancer

Publication Date



facial asymmetry, facial deformation, late effects, protontherapy, rhabdomyosarcoma, surgery