Value of Doppler ultrasound in early detection of diabetic kidney disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Venables HK., Wiafe YA., Adu-Bredu TK.
The diagnosis of diabetic kidney disease can be delayed by limitations of primary biomarkers, which are microalbuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate. A number of Doppler ultrasound studies have associated an increase in intrarenal vascular resistance with the disease, which makes ultrasound a potential adjunct tool for early diagnosis. However, there is inadequate evidence to establish the effectiveness of including Doppler ultrasound in the diagnostic process. This systematic review was therefore conducted to determine the value of using Doppler ultrasound in early detection of diabetic kidney disease. Electronic literature searches were carried out in PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science and EMBASE. All published prospective studies with records of intrarenal Doppler ultrasound, microalbuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate were obtained, and their relationship as parameters for diabetic kidney disease assessed. The meta-analysis of Doppler ultrasound versus albuminuria shows insignificant statistical difference between high resistive index of ≥ 0.7 and albuminuria, with the resistive index being the favoured parameter on the forest plot, making Doppler ultrasound highly comparable with albuminuria for the detection of diabetic kidney disease. Again, there was a significant statistical difference between high intrarenal resistive index of ≥ 0.7 and low estimated glomerular filtration rate of < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, with the resistive index being the favoured parameter on the forest plot, making Doppler ultrasound a superior parameter compared with estimated glomerular filtration rate for early detection of diabetic kidney disease.