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BACKGROUND: Over 250 million children under 5 years, globally, are at risk of developmental delay. Interventions during the first 2 years of life have enduring positive effects if children at risk are identified, using standardized assessments, within this window. However, identifying developmental delay during infancy is challenging and there are limited infant development assessments suitable for use in low- and middle-income (LMIC) settings. Here, we describe a new tool, the Oxford Neurodevelopment Assessment (OX-NDA), measuring cognition, language, motor, and behaviour, outcomes in 1-year-old children. We present the results of its evaluation against the Bayley Scales of Infant Development IIIrd edition (BSID-III) and its psychometric properties. METHODS: Sixteen international tools measuring infant development were analysed to inform the OX-NDA's construction. Its agreement with the BSID-III, for cognitive, motor and language domains, was evaluated using intra-class correlations (ICCs, for absolute agreement), Bland-Altman analyses (for bias and limits of agreement), and sensitivity and specificity analyses (for accuracy) in 104 Brazilian children, aged 12 months (SD 8.4 days), recruited from the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Behaviour was not evaluated, as the BSID-III's adaptive behaviour scale was not included in the cohort's protocol. Cohen's kappas and Cronbach's alphas were calculated to determine the OX-NDA's reliability and internal consistency respectively. RESULTS: Agreement was moderate for cognition and motor outcomes (ICCs 0.63 and 0.68, p 

Original publication




Journal article


BMC Pediatr

Publication Date





2015 Pelotas birth cohort study, Developmental delay, Early child development, Infant development, Neurodevelopment, OX-NDA, Infant, Humans, Child, Child, Preschool, Cohort Studies, Brazil, Reproducibility of Results, Child Development, Language Development Disorders