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A patient in her 60s was referred to be investigated for an incidental large uterus with a history of renal cell carcinoma and melanoma. Uterine biopsy revealed features of perivascular epithelioid cell tumours (PEComas) and she underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Final histology confirmed PEComa with malignant features. Genomic studies did not reveal any deleterious germline variants; however, in view of her history, she is now under a 6-month follow-up with gynaecology-oncology. PEComas are rare tumours associated with tuberous sclerosis and melanoma, sharing genetic abnormalities. Gynaecological PEComas usually present with no or non-specific symptoms. Preoperative investigations are often misleading. Final histology and immunohistochemistry have overlapping features with smooth muscle tumours. Although rare, PEComas need to be treated aggressively to minimise the potential risk of spread. There is currently little evidence about further adjuvant treatment and no clear follow-up protocol. However, the literature suggests that the prognosis is generally good.

Original publication




Journal article


BMJ Case Rep

Publication Date





Cancer intervention, Genetics, Surgery, Female, Humans, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasms, Tuberous Sclerosis, Melanoma, Kidney Neoplasms