Sensing Extracellular Calcium - An Insight into the Structure and Function of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR).
Chavez-Abiega S., Mos I., Centeno PP., Elajnaf T., Schlattl W., Ward DT., Goedhart J., Kallay E.
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that plays a key role in calcium homeostasis, by sensing free calcium levels in blood and regulating parathyroid hormone secretion in response. The CaSR is highly expressed in parathyroid gland and kidney where its role is well characterised, but also in other tissues where its function remains to be determined. The CaSR can be activated by a variety of endogenous ligands, as well as by synthetic modulators such as Cinacalcet, used in the clinic to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease. The CaSR couples to multiple G proteins, in a tissue-specific manner, activating several signalling pathways and thus regulating diverse intracellular events. The multifaceted nature of this receptor makes it a valuable therapeutic target for calciotropic and non-calciotropic diseases. It is therefore essential to understand the complexity behind the pharmacology, trafficking, and signalling characteristics of this receptor. This review provides an overview of the latest knowledge about the CaSR and discusses future hot topics in this field.