Novel epigenetic therapeutic strategies and targets in cancer.
Babar Q., Saeed A., Tabish TA., Pricl S., Townley H., Thorat N.
The critical role of dysregulated epigenetic pathways in cancer genesis, development, and therapy has typically been established as a result of scientific and technical innovations in next generation sequencing. RNA interference, histone modification, DNA methylation and chromatin remodelling are epigenetic processes that control gene expression without causing mutations in the DNA. Although epigenetic abnormalities are thought to be a symptom of cell tumorigenesis and malignant events that impact tumor growth and drug resistance, physicians believe that related processes might be a key therapeutic target for cancer treatment and prevention due to the reversible nature of these processes. A plethora of novel strategies for addressing epigenetics in cancer therapy for immuno-oncological complications are currently available - ranging from basic treatment to epigenetic editing. - and they will be the subject of this comprehensive review. In this review, we cover most of the advancements made in the field of targeting epigenetics with special emphasis on microbiology, plasma science, biophysics, pharmacology, molecular biology, phytochemistry, and nanoscience.