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Purpose This paper aims to report a prototype of a reliable method for rapid, sensitive bacterial detection by using a low-cost zinc oxide nanorods (ZnONRs)-based electrochemical sensor. Design/methodology/approach The ZnONRs have been grown on the surface of a disposable, miniaturized working electrode (WE) using the low-temperature hydrothermal technique. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectroscopy have been performed to characterize the distribution as well as the chemical composition of the ZnONRs on the surface, respectively. Moreover, the cyclic voltammetry test has been implemented to assess the effect of the ZnONRs on the signal conductivity between −1 V and 1 V with a scan rate of 0.01 V/s. Likewise, the effect of using different bacterial concentrations in phosphate-buffered saline has been investigated. Findings The morphological characterization has shown a highly distributed ZnONR on the WE with uneven alignment. Also, the achieved response time was about 12 minutes and the lower limit of detection was approximately 103 CFU abbreviation for Colony Forming Unit/mL. Originality/value This paper illustrates an outcome of an experimental work on a ZnONRs-based electrochemical biosensor for direct detection of bacteria.

Original publication




Journal article


Sensor Review



Publication Date





326 - 334