European Expert Consensus on Practical Management of Specific Aspects of Parathyroid Disorders in Adults and in Pregnancy: Recommendations of the ESE Educational Program of Parathyroid Disorders.
Bollerslev J., Rejnmark L., Zahn A., Heck A., Appelman-Dijkstra NM., Cardoso L., Hannan FM., Cetani F., Sikjær T., Formenti AM., Björnsdottir S., Schalin-Jantti C., Belaya Z., Gibb FW., Lapauw B., Amrein K., Wicke C., Grasemann C., Krebs M., Ryhänen EM., Makay O., Minisola S., Gaujoux S., Bertocchio J-P., Hassan-Smith ZK., Linglart A., Winter EM., Kollmann M., Zmierczak H-G., Tsourdi E., Pilz S., Siggelkow H., Gittoes NJ., Marcocci C., Kamenicky P.
This European expert consensus statement provides recommendations for the diagnosis and management of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), chronic hypoparathyroidism in adults (HypoPT), and parathyroid disorders in relation to pregnancy and lactation. Specified areas of interest and unmet needs identified by experts at the second ESE Educational Program of Parathyroid Disorders (PARAT) in 2019, were discussed during two virtual workshops in 2021, and subsequently developed by working groups with interest in the specified areas. PHPT is a common endocrine disease. However, its differential diagnosing to familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH), the definition and clinical course of normocalcemic PHPT, and the optimal management of its recurrence after surgery represent areas of uncertainty requiring clarifications. HypoPT is an orphan disease characterized by low calcium concentrations due to insufficient PTH secretion, most often secondary to neck surgery. Prevention and prediction of surgical injury to the parathyroid glands are essential to limit the disease-related burden. Long-term treatment modalities including the place for PTH replacement therapy and the optimal biochemical monitoring and imaging surveillance for complications to treatment in chronic HypoPT, need to be refined. The physiological changes in calcium metabolism occurring during pregnancy and lactation modify the clinical presentation and management of parathyroid disorders in these periods of life. Modern interdisciplinary approaches to PHPT and HypoPT in pregnant and lactating women and their newborns children are proposed. The recommendations on clinical management presented here will serve as background for further educational material aimed for a broader clinical audience, and were developed with focus on endocrinologists in training.