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Intravascular leiomyomatosis is a rare, benign tumour of myometrial smooth muscle. Despite being non-invasive, these tumours can proliferate aggressively within vascular structures including pelvic vessels, the vena cava and the heart. We discuss a 77-year-old woman presenting with a 9 cm uterine mass extending into the right adnexa and ovarian vein. Following hysteroscopic biopsy, palliative radical surgical resection was performed for suspected stage IV leiomyosarcoma. Tumour extension into the pelvic sidewall and obturator fossa indicated a modified laterally extended endopelvic resection combined with skeletonisation and preservation of the pelvic neurovasculature, ultimately providing a curative procedure with minimal functional neurological morbidity. We present this unusual case to assist in the development of a consensus for optimal case management where formal guidelines are not yet available. We summarise current understanding of intravascular leiomyomatosis and highlight the value of advanced surgical techniques using knowledge of complex ontogenetic and pelvic neuroanatomy in its management.

Original publication




Journal article


BMJ Case Rep

Publication Date





gynecological cancer, vascular surgery, Aged, Female, Heart Neoplasms, Humans, Leiomyomatosis, Pelvic Neoplasms, Sarcoma, Uterine Neoplasms, Vena Cava, Inferior