Crown-Rump Length Discordance, Increased Nuchal Translucency, and Detection of Fetal Structural Anomalies in Twin Pregnancies in the First Trimester: 5 Years of Experience in a Tertiary Hospital in China.
Li X., Xuan Y., Wang J., Wang L., Papageorghiou AT., Wu Q.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the first-trimester ultrasound scan in the detection of fetal structural anomalies in twin pregnancies. To examine the association between increased nuchal translucency (NT) thickness, crown-rump length (CRL) or NT discordance, and detection of structural anomalies in a large twin series in China. METHODS: We performed retrospective analysis of twin pregnancies who underwent 11-13+6 -week and second-trimester anomaly scan and booked at Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital between January 2012 and December 2016. Measurement of fetal CRL/NT and assessment of fetal anatomic structures were based on standard (not detailed) protocols. Conjoined twins and twin-reversed arterial perfusion sequence (TRAPS) were excluded from structural anomalies. The diagnostic performance of first-trimester ultrasound in detection of fetal structural anomalies in twins was determined and compared with that of second trimester. The accuracy of independent variates associated with structural anomaly detection was calculated. RESULTS: A total of 1442 women with twin pregnancies were included. In 40 women and 45 fetuses, structural anomalies were found. Fetal structural anomalies verified at delivery were detected in 42.5% (17/40) of affected pregnancies in the first trimester and 92.5% (37/40) of affected pregnancies when added second trimester (P = .13). The survival rate of pregnancies detected in second trimester was higher than that of pregnancies detected in first trimester (11.8% vs 65.2%). The mean value of intertwin CRL/NT discordance in cases with fetal structural anomalies was larger in monochorionic twins than dichorionic twins, but monochorionicity was not associated with structural anomalies. CRL discordance ≥10% (OR 3.1, 95%CI 1.5-6.3) and NT ≥95th centile (OR 20.0, 95%CI 9.0-44.2) were associated with fetal structural anomalies. In both dichorionic (DC) and monochorionic (MC) twins, the percentages of CRL discordance ≥10% was larger in twins with structural anomalies than those without structural anomalies (37.5% vs 13.4% in DC twins and 50.0% vs 12.5% in MC twins), and this was also true for NT ≥95th centile (31.3% vs 1.7% in DC twins and 37.5% vs 2.2% in MC twins). In the setting of CRL discordance ≥10%, 40.0% (16/40) of twins with structural anomalies were found, in which the predominant fetal structural anomalies were cardiovascular defects, abdominal wall defects, and central nervous system defects. The AUC for detecting structural anomalies by CRL discordance ≥10% was 0.63. In the setting of NT ≥95th centile, 32.5% (13/40) of twins with structural anomalies were found, in which the predominant fetal structural anomalies were cardiovascular defects, cystic hygroma, and abdominal wall defects. The AUC for detecting structural anomalies by NT ≥95th centile was 0.65. CONCLUSIONS: The detection rate of twins with fetal structural anomalies was 42.5% per pregnancy in the first trimester. CRL discordance ≥10% and NT ≥95th centile may indicate higher risk of fetal structural anomalies in twins, but their efficacy was limited.