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Background: Household air pollution adversely affects human health and the environment, yet more than 40% of the world still depends on solid cooking fuels. The House Air Pollution Intervention Network (HAPIN) randomized controlled trial is assessing the health effects of a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stove and 18-month supply of free fuel in 3,200 households in rural Guatemala, India, Peru, and Rwanda. Aims: We conducted formative research in Guatemala to create visual messages that support the sustained, exclusive use of LPG in HAPIN intervention households. Method: We conducted ethnographic research, including direct observation (n = 36), in-depth (n = 18), and semistructured (n = 6) interviews, and 24 focus group discussions (n = 96) to understand participants’ experience with LPG. Sixty participants were selected from a pilot study of LPG stove and 2-months of free fuel to assess the acceptability and use of LPG. Emergent themes were used to create visual messages based on observations and interviews in 40 households; messages were tested and revised in focus group discussions with 20 households. Results: We identified 50 codes related to household air pollution and stoves; these were reduced into 24 themes relevant to LPG stoves, prioritizing 12 for calendars. Messages addressed fear and reluctance to use LPG; preference of wood stoves for cooking traditional foods; sustainability and accessibility of fuel; association between health outcomes and household air pollution; and the need for inspirational and aspirational messages. Discussion: We created a flip chart and calendar illustrating themes to promote exclusive LPG use in HAPIN intervention households.

Original publication




Journal article


Health Education and Behavior

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