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Cancer cell resistance to chemotherapeutics (chemoresistance) poses a significant clinical challenge that oncology research seeks to understand and overcome. Multiple anticancer drugs and targeting agents can be incorporated in nanomedicines, in addition to different treatment modalities, forming a single nanoplatform that can be used to address tumor chemoresistance. Nanomedicine-driven molecular assemblies using nucleic acids, small interfering (si)RNAs, miRNAs, and aptamers in combination with stimuli-responsive therapy improve the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of the drugs and enhance their accumulation in tumors and, thus, therapeutic outcomes. In this review, we highlight nanomedicine-driven molecular targeting and therapy combination used to improve the 3Rs (right place, right time, and right dose) for chemoresistant tumor therapies.

Original publication




Journal article


Drug Discov Today

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