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To date, various chemically synthesized and biosynthesized nanoparticles, or hybrid nanosystems and/or nanoplatforms, have been developed under the umbrella of nanomedicine. These can be introduced into the body orally, nasally, intratumorally or intravenously. Successfully translating hybrid nanoplatforms from preclinical proof-of-concept to therapeutic value in the clinic is challenging. Having made significant advances with drug delivery technologies, we must learn from other areas of oncology drug development, where patient stratification and target-driven design have improved patient outcomes. This review aims to identify gaps in our understanding of the current strengths of nanomedicine platforms in drug delivery and cancer theranostics. We report on the current approaches of nanomedicine at preclinical and clinical stages.

Original publication




Journal article


Drug Discov Today

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