Minimizing surgical blood loss at cesarean hysterectomy for placenta previa with evidence of placenta increta or placenta percreta: the state of play in 2020.
Kingdom JC., Hobson SR., Murji A., Allen L., Windrim RC., Lockhart E., Collins SL., Soleymani Majd H., Alazzam M., Naaisa F., Shamshirsaz AA., Belfort MA., Fox KA.
The evolution of multidisciplinary team-based care for women with placenta accreta spectrum disorder has delivered stepwise improvements in clinical outcomes. Central to this overall goal is the ability to limit blood loss at surgery. Placement of inflatable balloons within the pelvic arteries, most commonly in the anterior divisions of the internal iliac arteries, became popular in many centers, at the expense of prolonging surgical care and with attendant risks of vascular injury. In tandem, the need to expose pelvic sidewall anatomy to safely identify the course of the ureters re-popularized the alternative strategy of ligating the same anterior divisions of the internal iliac arteries. With incremental gains in surgical expertise, described in 5 steps in this review, our teams have witnessed a steady decline in surgical blood loss. Nevertheless, a subset of women has the most severe form of placenta accreta spectrum, namely placenta previa-percreta. Such women are at risk of major hemorrhage during surgery from vessels arising outside the territories of the internal iliac arteries. These additional blood supplies, mostly from the external iliac arteries, pose significant risks of major blood loss even in experienced hands. To address this risk, some centers, principally in China, have adopted an approach of routinely placing an infrarenal aortic balloon, with both impressively low rates of blood loss and an ability to conserve the uterus by resecting the placenta with the affected portion of the uterine wall. We review these literature developments in the context of safely performing elective cesarean hysterectomy for placenta previa-percreta, the most severe placenta accreta spectrum disorder.