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The aim of this study was to investigate the association of total proline intake, proline of various food sources, and substitution analysis for proline of food sources with blood pressure (BP) and 3.1-year incidence of hypertension in the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. The cohort consisted of 4287 participants (41.9% male), aged ≥ 20-70 years. In fully-adjusted model, individuals in the highest tertile for proline intake had an increased risk of incident hypertension than those in the lowest one (OR: 1.45; 95%CI: 1.06-1.97; p for trend: .017). Replacing proline of cheese and legumes source with that of yogurt, poultry, milk, and red meat source was associated with significant negative β coefficient for BP. The present study indicated that high dietary intakes of proline may increase the risk of incident hypertension. Also, substituting proline intake of cheese and legumes by those of proline intake of meats and milk is associated with a lower risk of high BP.

Original publication




Journal article


Int J Food Sci Nutr

Publication Date



1 - 9


Proline, adult, blood pressure, hypertension, substitution analysis