D'Antonio F., Papageorghiou AT.
© 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Dilatation of the lateral ventricles of 10 mm or more is the most frequent sign of possible abnormality detected on antenatal ultrasound. It is not a disease but rather a sign that represents a common endpoint of various pathologic processes with different outcomes and prognosis. It can be a benign finding, but it can also be associated with such conditions as aneuploidies, congenital infections, cerebral vascular accidents, and other fetal cerebral or extracerebral abnormalities. Depending on the cause, there are different implications for long-term neurodevelopmental outcome. Apart from the underlying cause, the prognosis depends on coexistence of other anomalies and eventual progression of ventricular dilatation. Investigations therefore focus on determining a cause, excluding coexisting anomalies, and following up to assess for progression. Counseling parents whose fetus has ventriculomegaly should reflect these challenges and uncertainties.