Comprehensive analysis of 204 sporadic hydatidiform moles: revisiting risk factors and their correlations with the molar genotypes.
Khawajkie Y., Mechtouf N., Nguyen NMP., Rahimi K., Breguet M., Arseneau J., Ronnett BM., Hoffner L., Lazure F., Arnaud M., Peers F., Tan L., Rafea BA., Aguinaga M., Horowitz NS., Ao A., Tan SL., Brown R., Buckett W., Surti U., Hovanes K., Sahoo T., Sauthier P., Slim R.
Hydatidiform mole (HM) is an aberrant human pregnancy characterized by excessive trophoblastic proliferation and abnormal embryonic development. HM has two morphological types, complete (CHM) and partial (PHM), and non-recurrent ones have three genotypic types, androgenetic monospermic, androgenetic dispermic, and triploid dispermic. Most available studies on risk factors predisposing to different types of HM and their malignant transformation mainly suffer from the lack of comprehensive genotypic analysis of large cohorts of molar tissues combined with accurate postmolar hCG follow-up. Moreover, 10-20% of patients with one HM have at least one non-molar miscarriage, which is higher than the frequency of two pregnancy losses in the general population (2-5%), suggesting a common genetic susceptibility to HM and miscarriages. However, the underlying causes of the miscarriages in these patients are unknown. Here, we comprehensively analyzed 204 HM, mostly from patients referred to the Quebec Registry of Trophoblastic Diseases and for which postmolar hCG monitoring is available, and 30 of their non-molar miscarriages. We revisited the risk of maternal age and neoplastic transformation across the different HM genotypic categories and investigated the presence of chromosomal abnormalities in their non-molar miscarriages. We confirm that androgenetic CHM is more prone to gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) than triploid dispermic PHM, and androgenetic dispermic CHM is more prone to high-risk GTN and choriocarcinoma (CC) than androgenetic monospermic CHM. We also confirm the association between increased maternal age and androgenetic CHM and their malignancies. Most importantly, we demonstrate for the first time that patients with an HM and miscarriages are at higher risk for aneuploid miscarriages [83.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.653-0.944] than women with sporadic (51.5%, 95% CI: 50.3-52.7%, p value = 0.0003828) or recurrent miscarriages (43.8%, 95% CI: 40.7-47.0%, p value = 0.00002). Our data suggest common genetic female germline defects predisposing to HM and aneuploid non-molar miscarriages in some patients.