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Introduction: High prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) not associated with known risk factors has been reported from coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh. The Study to Test and Operationalize Preventive Approaches for Chronic Kidney Disease of Undetermined Etiology in Andhra Pradesh (STOP CKDu AP) aims to ascertain the burden (prevalence and incidence) of CKD, the risk factor profile, and the community perceptions about the disease in the Uddanam area of Andhra Pradesh. Methods: Study participants will be sampled from the Uddanam area using multistage cluster random sampling. Information will be collected on the demographic profile, occupational history, and presence of conventional as well as nonconventional risk factors. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) will be estimated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation, and proteinuria will be measured. All abnormal values will be confirmed by repeat testing after 3 months. Cases of CKD not associated with identified etiologies will be identified. Biospecimens will be stored to explore future hypotheses. The entire cohort will be followed up every 6 months to determine the incidence of CKD and to identify risk factors for decline in kidney function. Qualitative studies will be performed to understand the community perceptions and expectations with respect to the interventions. Implications: CKD is an important public health challenge in low- and middle-income countries. This study will establish the prevalence and determine the incidence of CKD not associated with known risk factors in a reported high-burden region, and will provide insights to help design targeted health systems responses. The findings will contribute to the policy development to tackle CKD in the region and will permit international comparisons with other regions with similar high prevalence.

Original publication




Journal article


Kidney Int Rep

Publication Date





1412 - 1419


CKD of uncertain etiology, chronic kidney disease, risk factors