Effects of simvastatin and enalapril on serum lipoprotein concentrations and left ventricular mass in patients on dialysis
Robson R., Collins J., Johnson R., Kitching R., Searle M., Walker R., Douglas J., Leary J., Whalley G., Sharpe N., Macmahon S.
A randomised trial of simvastatin and enalapril in patients with chronic renal failure on dialysis: effects on serum lipoprotein concentrations and left ventricular mass. Left ventricular hypertrophy and abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism are both possible contributors to the high risk of cardiovascular death in patients with chronic renal failure on dialysis. We investigated the effects of simvastatin on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and the effects of enalapril on left ventricular mass in 107 patients receiving haemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Patients were randomised in a factorial design to receive simvastatin (10 mg daily) or placebo and enalapril (2.5-5 mg daily) or placebo. During follow-up, there was a significant excess of patients withdrawn from enalapril because of hypotension (2p = 0.002), and after 6 months only 55% of those assigned enalapril were still on treatment. From baseline to 6 months, there were no statistically significant differences in left ventricular mass or left ventricular dimensions between patients assigned enalapril and those assigned placebo. Among the patients assigned simvastatin, total cholesterol was reduced by 13% (2p = 0.001), LDL-cholesterol was reduced by 17% (2p = 0.003) and apolipoprotein B was reduced by 12% (2p = 0.005) compared to patients assigned placebo. There were borderline significant (2p = 0.05 to 0.08) reductions in VLDL cholesterol, total triglyceride and VLDL triglycerides of 26%, 12% and 17% respectively. Large-scale trials are now required to determine whether reductions in lipid and lipoprotein concentrations confer a reduction in coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality in patients on dialysis.