Plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and adrenomedullin: Prognostic utility and prediction of benefit from carvedilol in chronic ischemic left ventricular dysfunction
Richards AM., Doughty R., Nicholls MG., MacMahon S., Sharpe N., Murphy J., Espiner EA., Frampton C., Yandle TG.
OBJECTIVES: We sought to assess plasma concentrations of the amino (N)-terminal portion of pro-brain natriuretic peptide (N-BNP) and adrenomedullin for prediction of adverse outcomes and responses to treatment in 297 patients with ischemic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction who were randomly assigned to receive carvedilol or placebo. BACKGROUND: Although neurohormonal status has known prognostic significance in heart failure, the predictive power of either N-BNP or adrenomedullin in chronic ischemic LV dysfunction has not been previously reported. METHODS: Plasma N-BNP and adrenomedullin were measured in 297 patients with chronic ischemic (LV) dysfunction before randomization to carvedilol or placebo, added to established treatment with a converting enzyme inhibitor and loop diuretic (with or without digoxin). The patients' clinical outcomes, including mortality and heart failure events, were recorded for 18 months. RESULTS: Above-median N-BNP and adrenomedullin levels conferred increased risks (all p < 0.001) of mortality (risk ratios [95% confidence intervals]: 4.67 [2-10.9] and 3.92 [1.76-8.7], respectively) and hospital admission with heart failure (4.7 [2.2-10.3] and 2.4 [1.3-4.5], respectively). Both of these predicted death or heart failure independent of age, New York Heart Association functional class, LV ejection fraction, previous myocardial infarction or previous admission with heart failure. Carvedilol reduced the risk of death or heart failure in patients with above-median levels of N-BNP or adrenomedullin, or both, to rates not significantly different from those observed in patients with levels below the median value. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with established ischemic LV dysfunction, plasma N-BNP and adrenomedullin are independent predictors of mortality and heart failure. Carvedilol reduced mortality and heart failure in patients with higher pre-treatment plasma N-BNP and adrenomedullin. © 2001 by the American College of Cardiology.