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AIM: In this study, we evaluate the associations between fetal urinary production rate (FUPR), measured by ultrasound, and adverse neonatal outcome in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). METHODS: We conducted a prospective pilot cohort of singleton pregnancies complicated by PPROM occurring at gestational week 24 or later managed until spontaneous labor (after 48 h of admission), chorioamnionitis, or induction by protocol at 35 + 0 weeks. FUPR was evaluated by 2D sonography at admission (corrected for gestational age). The main neonatal outcome measures were chorioamnionitis, placental inflammatory grading, first neonatal creatinine value, first neonatal dextrose value, length of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) (grades I-IV), blood transfusions, reduced neonatal urine production rate (<4 mL/kg/h), and early neonatal sepsis. Samples of maternal (at admission) and umbilical cord blood were analyzed for interleukin-6 (IL-6) level. RESULTS: The study included 38 women. Low FUPR was associated with clinical chorioamnionitis, longer NICU hospitalization (p = 0.01), higher rates of NEC or IVH (p = 0.008), and blood transfusion (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: A finding of FUPR on in utero ultrasound examination in pregnancies complicated by PPROM may be indicative of adverse neonatal outcome.

Original publication




Journal article


Gynecol Obstet Invest

Publication Date



Antenatal diagnosis, Chorioamnionitis, Fetal inflammatory response syndrome, Fetal urine, Preterm birth, Preterm premature rupture of membranes, Ultrasound