Lower blood pressure and risk of recurrent stroke in patients with chronic kidney disease: PROGRESS trial
Ninomiya T., Perkovic V., Gallagher M., Jardine M., Cass A., Arima H., Anderson C., Neal B., Woodward M., Omae T., MacMahon S., Chalmers J.
Recent epidemiological studies have shown a J-shaped association between the risk of stroke and systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Perindopril Protection Against Recurrent Stroke Study (PROGRESS) was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial demonstrating that perindopril-based blood pressure (BP) lowering reduced the risk of stroke in 6105 participants with prior cerebrovascular disease. We estimated the effects of therapy on the risk of recurrent stroke in 1757 of these participants with stage 3 or greater CKD according to baseline BP and the relationship between achieved follow-up BP and the risk of stroke. Active therapy produced comparable and significant reductions in the risk of stroke across all baseline SBP levels. The age- and gender-adjusted incidence of stroke increased significantly in a log-linear relationship for achieved SBP levels and strokes per 1000 person-years. This association persisted after adjusting for potential confounding factors. We found that perindopril-based BP lowering effectively prevented recurrent stroke in people with CKD, across a wide range of BP levels, without evidence of an increased risk of stroke in people with low BP levels.