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BACKGROUND: The relationships of healthy lifestyle scores (HLS) of various kinds in adulthood with the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been reported, but little is known about the association of childhood lifestyle with later life CKD. This study examined the relationship of HLS from childhood to adulthood with subclinical kidney damage (SKD) in midlife, a surrogate measure for CKD. METHODS: Data were collected in an Australian population-based cohort study with 33 years follow-up. 750 participants with lifestyle information collected in childhood (ages 10-15 years) and midlife (ages 40-50 years), and measures of kidney function in midlife were included. The HLS was generated from the sum scores of five lifestyle factors (body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diet). Each factor was scored as poor (0 point), intermediate (1 point), or ideal (2 points). Log-binomial regression was used to investigate the relationship of HLS in childhood and from childhood to adulthood with SKD defined as either 1) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 30-60 mL/min/1.73m2 or 2) eGFR> 60 mL/min/1.73m2 with urine albumin-creatinine ratio ≥ 2.5 mg/mmol (males) or 3.5 mg/mmol (females), adjusting for socio-demographic factors and the duration of follow-up. RESULTS: The average HLS was 6.6 in childhood and 6.5 in midlife, and the prevalence of SKD was 4.9% (n = 36). Neither HLS in childhood nor HLS from childhood to adulthood were significantly associated with the risk of SKD in midlife. CONCLUSIONS: A HLS from childhood to adulthood did not predict SKD in this middle-aged, population-based Australian cohort.

Original publication




Journal article


BMC Nephrol

Publication Date





Adult, Child, Chronic kidney disease, Healthy lifestyle, Longitudinal studies